Survey of providers of acute psychosocial support - Germany BBK

The BBK developed a qualitative questionnaire to get more information about experiences of acute psychosocial helpers (e.g. crisis intervention teams, pastoral emergency care) concerning, for example, the frequency of supporting people with visual impairment or hearing impairments, their needs and demands, solutions for communication problems or offering important information and needs for training modules. After conducting first interviews, the German research team decided to include rescue worker and fire brigades in the survey. The questionnaire in a first draft version was sent to multiple fire brigades, rescue services and professionals in the field of psychosocial support. Now the BBK is analyzing their results, and more detailed report will follow. The german version of the questionnaire can be found here.

Qualitative study on Deaf and hard-of-hearing individuals - Denmark


This qualitative study sought to investigate the experiences of Deaf and hard-of-hearing individuals with first aid and/or psychosocial crises treatment services in Denmark, so that guidelines for best practice can be developed and implemented. The participants were nine Deaf and hard-of-hearing individuals recruited through Deaf Unions, word-of-mouth, written and sign language announcements on the Danish Deaf Associations' homepage as well as various articles about the project. Semi-structured interviews were used to examine the participants' experiences with crises/accidents/disasters, how they coped, and how they rate the first aid (emergency treatment) and/or psychosocial crises treatment offered to them. Furthermore, the participants were asked to provide recommendations as to how first responders and mental health professionals best can help Deaf and hard-of-hearing individuals in the event of crises/accidents/disasters. The majority of the interviews were conducted at the Danish National Centre for Psychotraumatology (the University of Southern Denmark) and lasted approximately 1-2 hours. Sign language interpreters were provided during the interviews for the participants who required it. The findings indicate that the experiences of Deaf and hard-of-hearing individuals with first aid and/or psychosocial crises management are characterized by serious communication barriers. There was agreement among the participants that professionals should do their best to ensure that a sign language interpreter is provided in both acute and aftercare situations for those who need it. In cases where a sign language interpreter cannot be provided, then professionals should make use of the wide range of technical equipment available that can assist communication. In situations where the use of technical equipment might be problematic, it would be beneficial if professionals knew some basic phrases in sign language or could spell out simple words using the sign language alphabet. In any event, it is important that professionals use eye contact, speak slowly and clearly, and refrain from shouting when communicating with Deaf and hard-of-hearing individuals. In general, first responders and mental health professionals need to expand their knowledge about Deaf and hard-of-hearing individuals in order to provide a better service.

The poster-presentation of the study you can find here.

Literatur study deaf/ hearing impairment - Czech Republic

In a special task, our Czech partners conducted a literature study on the field of psychosocial crisis management for assisting people with visual or hearing impairment. The list refers to the following topics: 

  • Theory/ Research
  • Guides/ Manuals/ Drill
  • Recommendations/ Policy
  • Technical Solutions

Theory/ Research

Black, P. A., & Glickman, N. S. (2006)
Demographics, psychiatric diagnoses, and other characteristics of North American Deaf and hard-of-hearing inpatients.
J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ, 11
(3), 303-321
doi: 10.1093/deafed/enj042

Cabral, L., Muhr, K., & Savageau, J. (2012)
Perspectives of People Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing on Mental Health, Recovery, and Peer Support.
Community Mental Health Journal
, 1-9
doi: 10.1007/s10597-012-9569-z

Child, B., Oschwald, M., Curry, M. A., Hughes, R. B., & Powers, L. E. (2011)
Understanding the Experience of Crime Victims with Disabilities and Deaf Victims. Journal of Policy Practice, 10(4), 247–267

Coll, K.M., Cutler, M.M., Thorobro, P., & Haas, R. (2009)
An Exploratory Study of Psychosocial Risk Behaviours of Adolescents Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Comparisons and Recommendations.
American Annals of the Deaf, 154(1), 30-35
doi: 10.1353/aad.0.0074

Embry, R.A., & Grossman, F.D. (2006-2007)
The Los Angeles County response to child abuse and deafness: a social movement theory analysis.
American Annals of the Deaf, 151(5), 488-498

Fellinger, J., Holzinger, D., & Pollard, R. (2012)
Mental health of deaf people. The Lancet, 379(9820), 1037–1044.
Retrieved from

Glickman, N.S. (2009)
Adapting best practices in CBT for deaf and hearing persons with language and learning challenges.
Journal of psychotherapy integration, 19(4), 354-384

Glickman, N.S. & Gulati, S. (2003)
Mental health care of deaf people – a culturally affirmative approach.
Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Glickman, N.S. & Harvey, M.A. (1996)
Culturally affirmative psychotherapy with deaf persons, xi, 289 pp.
Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Glickman, N.S. (2011)
Lessons learned from 23 years of a deaf psychiatric inpatient unit: Part 2.
Journal of the American Deafness and Rehabilitation Association, 44(2),
Win 2011, 82-100.

Gracer, B. (2008)
Emergency Management Research and People With Disabilities (p. 80).
Retrieved from

Harvey, M.A. (2003)
Psychotherapy with deaf and hard-of-hearing persons: A systemic model.
Hilsdale, N.J: Lawrence Erbaum Associates.

Kailes, J. I. (2005)
Disaster Services and “Special Needs”: Term of Art or Meaningless Term? (p. 13).
Pomona: Center for Disability Issues and the Health Professions.

Kailes, J. I. & Enders, A. (2007)
Moving Beyond “Special Needs”: A Function-Based Framework for Emergency Management and Planning.
Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 17(4), 230-237.
doi: 10.1177/10442073070170040601

Logan, S.A. (2012)
The relationship of coping strategies to psychological health among sexually victimized deaf women.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The sciences and Engineering [1-124-67376-8].

McEntee, Maureen K. (1993)
Accessibility of mental health services and crisis intervention to the deaf.
American Annals of the deaf, 138(1), 26-30.

Schild, S. & Dalenberg, C.J. (2012)
Psychoform and somatoform dissociation and PTSD in deaf adults.
Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 13(3), 361-376.

Schild, S., & Dalenberg, C. (2012)
Trauma exposure and traumatic symptoms in deaf adults.
Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 4(1), 117–127.

Schwenke, T. (2011)
Childhood Trauma: Considering Diagnostic and Culturally Sensitive Treatment Approaches for Deaf Clients.
JADARA, Journal of the American Deafness & Rehabilitation Association. 45(1), 158–169.
Retrieved from

Spink, D. (1976)
Crisis intervention for parents of the deaf child.
Health & Social Work, 4(1).

Sullivan, P., & Knutson, J. (1998)
Maltreatment and behavioral characteristics of youth who are deaf and hard-of-hearing.
Sexuality and Disability, 16(4), 295–319.
Retrieved from

Guides/ Manuals/ Drill

Barnett, S. (2002)
Communication with deaf and hard-of-hearing people: a guide for medical education.
AAMC Academic Medicine Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges, 77(7), 694–700.
Retrieved from

Enders, A., & Brandt, Z. (2007b)
To Improve Emergency Management and Disaster Response for People With Disabilities GIS : Dynamic Tools, 223–230.

Engelman, A., Ivey, S. L., Tseng, W., Dahrouge, D., Brune, J., & Neuhauser, L. (2013)
Responding to the deaf in disasters: establishing the need for systematic training for state-level emergency management agencies and community organizations.
BMC Health Serv Res, 13(1), 84. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-13-84

Livadas, G. (2005)
Locals create disaster guide for deaf. Democrat and Chronicle, 2005.
Retrieved from

Markenson, D., Fuller, E., & Redlener, I. (2007)
Emergency Preparedness: Addressing the Needs of Persons with Disabilities.
Retrieved from PDF

MHA of San Francisco. (n.d.)
Tips for Assisting People with Disabilities in Disaster Shelters (p. 9). San Francisco.

Miyamoto, S. (2013)
Brief manual for the care of disabled children after disasters. Brain & development, 35(3), 195–200.

Ssue, I., Lozynsky, W., Reese, S., Road, M., & Hill, L. (1970)
CEPIN Emergency Preparedness Training (pp. 2–3).

Sullivan, M. T., & Häkkinen, H. T. (2006)
Disaster preparedness for vulnerable populations: Determining effective strategies for communicating risk, warning, and response.
In Third Annual Magrann Research Conference at Rutgers University (Vol. 4, pp. 1–36).
Research Inst. of NRCPD.
Retrieved from PDF

Tanaka, S. (2013)
Issues in the support disaster preparedness of severely disabled children in affected areas. Brain & development, 35(3), 209–13.

Ulmasova, Irina; Silcock, Nathalie; Schranz, B. (2009)
Mainstreaming Disability into Disaster Risk Reduction: A Training Manual (pp. 1–87).

United States Fire Administration. (2002)
Orientation manual for first responders on the evacuation of people with disabilities (p. 31). FEMA.
Retrieved from

Recommendations/ Policy (n.d.)
Office of Disability Employment Policy.
Retrieved from

Flynn, T. (2010)
Emergency Communication Effectiveness for Deaf and Hard of Hearing in Victoria, Australia, 1–188.
Retrieved from (PDF)

Jones, N. L. (2010)
The Americans with Disabilities Act and Emergency Preparedness and Response.
Congressional Research Service.
Retrieved from

Technical Solutions

Bowe, F. G. (1991)
National survey on telephone services and products. The views of deaf and hard-of-hearing people. Am Ann Deaf, 136(3), 278-283.

Bruck, D., & Thomas, I.R. (2009)
Smoke alarms for sleeping adults who are hard-of-hearing: a comparison of auditory, visual, and tactile signals. Ear and Hearing, 30(1), 73-80.
doi: 10.1097/AUD.0b013e3181906f89

Cheong, P, & Karras, E. (2009)
Examining New Media Use and Interability Communication Among Deaf Persons. Conference Papers International Communication Association,1–33.
Retrieved from

Elsold, D., & Perkins, B. (2008)
Disaster alert device, system and method. WO Patent
Retrieved from

Enders, A., & Brandt, Z. (2007a)
Using Geographic Information System Technology to Improve Emergency Management and Disaster Response for People with Disabilities.
Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 17(4), 223–229.

Finucan, T. (1998)
Combination flashlight, smoke detector and emergency alarm.
US Patent 5,731,759.
Retrieved from

Harkins, J., Tucker, P. E., Williams, N., & Sauro, J. (2010)
Vibration signaling in mobile devices for emergency alerting: a study with deaf evaluators.
Journal of deaf studies and deaf education, 15(4), 438–45.

Hersh, M., Ohene-Djan, J., & Naqvi, S. (2010)
Investigating road safety issues and deaf people in the United kingdom: an empirical study and recommendations for good practice.
J Prev Interv Community, 38(4), 290-305.
doi: 10.1080/10852352.2010.509021

Hosono, N., Inoue, H., Miki, H., Suzuki, M., Nagashima, Y., & Tomita, Y. (2010)
Universal communication service for inclusive use. Proceedings of SICE Annual Conference 2010

Ito, A., Murakami, H., Watanabe, Y., Fujii, M., Yabe, T., & Hiramatsu, Y.
Information Delivery System for Deaf People at a Larger Disaster. Broadband and Biomedical Communications IB2Com 2010 Fifth International Conference on 1–6 (2010). IEEE.

Malizia, A., Onorati, T., Astorga-paliza, F., Díaz, P., & Aedo, I. (2008)
Emergency Alerts for all : an ontology based approach to improve accessibility in emergency alerting systems. Comparative and General Pharmacology, 1(May 2008), 197–207.
Retrieved from

Spence, P. R., Lachlan, K., Burke, J. M., & Seeger, M. W. (2007)
Media use and information needs of the disabled during a natural disaster.
Journal of health care for the poor and underserved, 18(2), 394–404.


European Guidelines for Target-Group Orientated Psychosocial Aftercare in Case of Disaster

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European Guideline for Targetgroup Oriented Psychosocial Aftercare - Implementation -
2009 - 2011

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